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The Risks of Being Vitamin D Deficient as an Athlete

By Joel Totoro, RD, 11/08/18, 7:00AM MST


Vitamin D is often referred to as the sunshine vitamin, given that our primary source of this vitamin is exposure to the sun. Nevertheless, it is estimated that as much as 88% of the population receives less than the optimal amount of vitamin D. (1)

The ability to synthesize vitamin D decreases as we age – by as much as 75%.

And, given that vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, individuals who carry an excess amount of body fat can risk up to 55% of their vitamin D becoming trapped in fat cells and not available in the bloodstream. (2)

We often wrongly assume that athletes, because they train outdoors, receive enough sunlight to achieve their vitamin D needs. Although time in the sun is a significant factor, the sun is often not strong enough to meet vitamin D needs, even when the athlete spends seemingly adequate time in the sun.

In addition, skin pigmentation and sunscreen use can limit vitamin D production.

Besides the skin, only the eyes are the body’s other organ directly exposed to sunlight. Therefore, the use of sunglasses, hats, helmets, and clothing can limit vitamin D production, even when time in the sun seems adequate.

Although it has already been established that athletes can be at risk for suboptimal vitamin D production, and the role of the vitamin in promoting normal health is well known, current research suggests that vitamin D might be of great interest to those athletes who have performance goals in mind.

In the body, vitamin D is associated with: (2-4)

  • Optimal calcium absorption*
  • Bone and teeth health*
  • Muscle strength and mass*
  • Healthy immune function*
  • Normal blood pressure*
  • Promoting cell growth*
  • Healthy neuromuscular function*
  • A normal inflammatory response*
  • Optimizing weight management *

What the research says about vitamin D in athletes:

Research about vitamin D and athletes is an ever-expanding topic. Studies from the 1930s to the 1950s that linked better performances in summer months than winter months attributed the result to exposure to ultraviolet light. As this body of evidence grew, however, we began to tie ultraviolet light exposure to increases in vitamin D levels.

Athletes who train indoors, or in higher latitudes (north of Atlanta), or in winter months, or who use sunscreen, sunglasses, or other methods to shield the skin can have suboptimal vitamin D levels.

In fact, it is estimated that only 5% of collegiate athletes meet the recommended intake of vitamin D. (5)

Even if athletes receive less vitamin D than is recommended, will supplemental vitamin D help? In 2016, researchers found that 70% of athletes tested had an inadequate vitamin D level at baseline. After a year of supplementing with vitamin D3 at 2,200 IU per day, 80% of those same athletes were shown to have an adequate vitamin D level. (6)

Further studies have examined the impact of vitamin D supplementation on performance. For example, a 2013 study from England in professional athletes and healthy active non-elite athletes showed an increase in sprint performance and vertical leap after eight weeks of supplementing 5,000 IU/day of vitamin D3. (7)

Muscles used in training and the recovery from that training are central to athletic performance. A 2013 study found that supplementing 4,000 IU vitamin D for 28 days had a positive impact on the recovery of peak isometric force after a physically stressful event. (8)

Because vitamin D plays a prominent role in bone health, it is of particular importance to athletes.

There have been several studies that link adequate vitamin D status to bone health and the prevention of bone injury in athletes. Studies also show that inadequate levels of vitamin D are linked to 3.6 times more stress fractures in young men. (9) On the other hand, the inclusion of 800 IU/day of vitamin D in conjunction with calcium supplementation reduced the rate of stress fractures by 20% in female U.S. Navy recruits. (10)

A 2015 study looking at the correlation between vitamin D levels and the ability to keep a roster position in the National Football League found that in 80 NFL players, 77% had a deficient vitamin D level and there was a statistically significant relationship between a lower vitamin D level and the ability to make the regular season roster, often due to performance or injury. (11)

One overlooked aspect of vitamin D is its role in immune function. The stress of training and competition travel places a burden not only on an athlete’s bones and muscles, but also on the immune system. Every athlete knows competing when even the slightest bit ill will significantly diminish performance.

Vitamin D is essential for activating immune cells.

A common health issue impacting athletes is upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). Recent studies in college athletes found that those athletes with lower vitamin D levels reported more frequent, more severe, and longer lasting URTIs than those who had higher levels of vitamin D. (5,12)

A growing body of evidence supports having an adequate level of vitamin D in athletes not only to sustain normal health, but also to positively impact athletic performance. Given the high incidence of vitamin D insufficiency, the relatively few sources of vitamin D in the food supply, and the environmental factors that limit an athlete’s ability to synthesize vitamin D, supplementation should be one of the more essential parts of an athlete’s nutrition routine.

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  1. Bendik I, Friedel A, Roos F, et al. Vitamin D: a critical and essential micronutrient for human health. Front Physiol 2014;5:248.  doi: 10.3389/fphys.2014.00248
  2. National Institutes of Health – Office of Dietary Supplements – Vitamin D – Fact Sheet for Health Professionals [accessed May 20, 2018]
  3. Larson-Meyer D, Willis K. Vitamin D and athletes.Curr Sports Med Rep 2010;9(4):220-226. 
  4. Holick M. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 2007;357(3):266-281.
  5. Halliday T, Peterson N, Thomas J, et al. Vitamin D status relative to diet, lifestyle, injury, and illness in college athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2011;43(2):335-343.
  6. Backx E, Tieland M, Maase K, et al. The impact of 1-year vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D status in athletes: a dose-response study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2016;70(9):1009-1014.
  7. Close G, Russell J, Cobley J, et al. Assessment of vitamin D concentration in non-supplemented professional athletes and healthy adults during the winter months in the UK: implications for skeletal muscle function. J Sports Sci 2013;31(4):344-353. 
  8. Barker T, Schneider E, Dixon B, et al. Supplemental vitamin D enhances the recovery in peak isometric force shortly after intense exercise. Nutr Metab2013;10:69.
  9. Ruohola J, Laaksi I, Ylikomi T, et al. Association between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and bone stress fractures in Finnish young men. J Bone Miner Res 2006;21(9):1483-1488.
  10. Lappe J, Cullen D, Haynatzki G, et al. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation decreases incidence of stress fractures in female Navy recruits.J Bone Miner Res 2008;23(5):741-749.
  11. Maroon J, Mathyssek C, Bost J, et al. Vitamin D profile in National Football League players. Am J Sports Med 2015;43(5):1241-1245.
  12. He C, Handzlik M, Fraser W, et al. Influence of vitamin D status on respiratory infection incidence and immune function during four months of winter training in endurance sport athletes. Exerc Immunol Rev2013;19:86-101.

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The final whistle

By Brian Hall 10/31/2018, 5:00pm MDT

Keith Kaval leaves a 30-year officiating career for a new challenge in the NAHL

Keith Kaval took his warmup lap on the ice and the only thing he could think about before officiating one of the biggest games of his career was the illness that had sapped him of energy.

The longtime official skated around HSBC Arena in Buffalo, New York, before the start of the 2011 IIHF World Junior Championship gold-medal game and thought to himself, “This is not good.” Kaval was about to referee the championship game between Canada and Russia.

“I kind of composed myself and I ended up working the game,” Kaval recalled recently. “The game was amazing. We called what we had to call. We weren’t a direct affect in the game and the Russians came back in the third period to beat Canada, which was a crazy, amazing game. Being able to do that game here on our own soil was pretty amazing. That’s something I’ll probably never forget.”

Having the opportunity to officiate the game, and fight through his illness, is one just one of the experiences Kaval is drawing on as he has transitioned from on-ice official to the director of officiating for the North American Hockey League and North American Tier III Hockey League.

Kaval wants to use his nearly 30 years as an on-ice official to develop the next wave of officials and hopefully provide them the same opportunities he had in a career which spanned nearly every rung of the hockey ladder, including the American Hockey League, the Kontinental Hockey League and the NCAA.

“It’s a continuous thing where we’re trying to move guys up and move them on, and give them the experience that they need,” Kaval said of his new position. “They serve our league, obviously, but the end game is to get them prepared for the next level of hockey. It’s no different than our member clubs, a lot of good opportunities for our guys to earn scholarship with the various NCAA teams and no different with us. We’re trying to move our guys up and on as well. It’s pretty much, we co-exist with the teams trying to do the same thing.”

Kaval worked his last game in the AHL on Oct. 13, finally hanging up the skates after a long on-ice career. He hopes to impart some of his knowledge and experience on newer officials who are starting their careers.

While the highlight of his career might have been Canada-Russia in 2011, Kaval worked three straight IIHF World Championships. He also became the first North American official to work in Russia’s professional KHL.

“Every day was a challenge,” Kaval said. “It was a pretty cool experience and there’s another thing that I can share with our guys about being uncomfortable in different situations where pretty much the only normalcy was hockey.”

Having moved full-time into his new role, Kaval is enjoying the new experiences he faces after starting a career at age 13 while just trying to earn some money and extra ice time.

“The biggest thing for me is just learning about each individual official and what makes them tick, and then seeing what they do because they all bring different skill sets,” Kaval said. “It’s not a cookie-cutter system where this is our method or this is what’s going to work for you. Every official’s different and I’d just rather give them some perspective on what may have worked for me and they can take some of that.”

In the early-going, Kaval was traveling constantly to have face-to-face interaction with officials and teams. He’s working through the challenge of increasing numbers of total officials. He wants to train the officials on technique and help deliver tips. He also preaches accountability and communication.

“There are certain things we can control as officials; That’s being professional, that’s being good communicators and being honest and trying to work the best game we can,” Kaval said. “We’re never going to be perfect, but I think the teams are starting to realize in our league that we’re here and we’re a partner to, not only the league, but all of them in that we’re just trying to make the game better and trying to do what’s right to keep the game fair and safe.”

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