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How to Improve Hockey IQ

By Michael Caples, 09/23/15, 4:15PM MDT


Any coach knows that even the most skilled hockey players won’t win you many games if they don’t know what to do with that skill. While skill development is of the utmost importance for coaches, we should also focus on building smarter hockey players. Cultivating better decision-makers on the ice leads to more development, success, and ultimately, fun.

 Paul Moore, coach-in-chief for USA Hockey’s Massachusetts District, has spent a lifetime working on hockey IQ with players and coaches, and he said that nothing works better than small-area games.

“That’s the whole idea behind the small-area games – put them in competitive situations where there are a lot of confrontations and a lot of body contact,” Moore said. “I think the younger the age you start small-area games, the better you develop decision-making.”

Staying Engaged

Moore, who won USA Hockey’s William Thayer Tutt Award in 2012 for his work with Falmouth Youth Hockey, has watched the benefits of cross-ice games unfold in his own community. Falmouth, Mass., has a half-sheet of ice, constructed in part to help Moore’s association incorporate ADM principles into their training, and the investment is paying off.

“We saw it evolve right in front of us,” Moore said. “That small rink, you just watch and you see it happening. Someone is always in the play. That’s what you want. In a small-area game, they’re all in it, they’re all in the play. They’re engaging in it. That’s what we need to constantly reinforce. Doing full-ice drills with young kids, not everyone is engaged. You get a lot of people standing around, and it’s not a good use of ice.”

Game-Like Situations

Moore pointed out that practicing in small areas helps create game-like situations for the players to experience. The former professional hockey player and longtime coach pointed out that small-area games have been utilized for generations, and by legendary coaches like Herb Brooks.

“We’re talking about decision-making and situational awareness, some people call it hockey IQ,” Moore said. “If I’m doing a 1-on-1 drill out of the corner, and the defenseman’s at the blue line, and he’s going to go full-ice and go down one-on-one, that’s not a game situation. How often does one kid go from one end of the ice to the other with just one person on him?

“We’re going to put them in a small-area game. Set it up, battle down low in a 1-on-1 or a 2-on-2 and you put him in the corner. He has more confrontations, he has no time and he has no space – he is forced into making quicker decisions. That’s the small area we want to force that kid into, so he’s inherently forced to make decisions. That’s why the ADM works so well in the small-area games and the cross-ice, because it benefits everyone on the ice. The best player on the ice is being challenged, and certainly the weakest player is, because there is no time and space.”

The Player’s Perspective

The Massachusetts coach-in-chief stresses that his peers need to try to see the game from a player’s perspective – especially at the younger ages – to keep them engaged in a practice. If they’re bored or ‘checked out’ then they’re not improving – especially on the mental side of their development.

“When you’re dealing with younger kids, if our coaches are thinking like younger kids, then they’re not running a drill for eight or nine minutes,” Moore said. “Six minutes, in a tight area, and then you’re on to the next one. In that tight area, you’re getting challenged. There are people tugging on him, pushing on him.”

Along the same lines, Moore wants to see coaches let players develop their decision-making processes on their own. Players can learn how to handle situations on the ice through trial and error and by competing against their peers.

“You know, I think one of the most important things we can do as coaches is let the game be the teacher. Have the adults get out of the way, and let the kids play,” adds Moore. “It all depends on what level you’re dealing with, but certainly 12U and down, let the game be the teacher, and have the coaches get out of the way. That’s when you see the magic happen. That’s what I was doing 30 or 40 years ago on the pond. There was no teacher out there, there was no coach out there stopping the play and telling the kid what he did wrong or how to play the game. Let the game be the teacher. It’s very, very important. Sometimes we get in the way, and we don’t need to.”


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Long before Johnathan Morrison was the officiating advisory group leader for the International Paralympic Committee, he was a 30-something-year-old trying to find his way on the international circuit. 

Little did Morrison know, a random phone call in October 2005 would change his life. He remembers it like it was yesterday. He had taken a puck to the face a month earlier and was still recovering from a broken cheekbone when Scott Brinkman gave him a ring. 

As the officiating advisory group leader for the International Paralympic Committee at the time, Brinkman was inquiring to see if Morrison had any interest in officiating a three-team sled hockey tournament in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

“He called and asked me if I wanted to get involved with the sport,” Morrison recalled. “Honestly, at that time I had never seen a game played. We were having this conversation about getting involved with the sport and he mentioned that there was an event in February 2006 that he wanted to send me to. It was kind of a chance for me to learn the ins and outs of the sport.”

Wait. There was more. 

“He told me if I did good he would send me to the 2006 Paralympic Games in Torino,” Morrison said. “I had just moved to the Twin Cities and had just started working the WCHA and that would’ve been right in the middle of playoff time. I remember saying to Scott, ‘When exactly will I know if I’m going to go to Torino?’ I asked because I needed to tell my college supervisor that I was going to be gone for the playoffs. He goes, ‘Well, let me rephrase that. Congratulations. You’ve been selected to go to the 2006 Paralympic Games in Torino.’ I was like, ‘Oh crap. Here we go.’”

All of a sudden Morrison was on a crash course, trying to learn the ropes of sled hockey as fast as possible. He watched a bunch of DVDs to study the game as well as any YouTube clips he could get his hands on. 

Then it was off to Colorado Springs without any sort of in-game experience.  

“I got very lucky because the other individual that they sent to that event in Colorado Springs was a gentleman by the name of Scott McDonald,” Morrison said. “He had been around the sport for a long time and he basically taught me the game.”

While the differences were vast, especially considering Morrison had only ever worked with traditional hockey prior to that event, the biggest difference came down to positioning on the ice. 

“Everything I knew about positioning basically got thrown out the window,” Morrison said. “You have to be on top of the play at all times because the penalties are much more subtle and much more difficult to see. You have a stick that’s only 100 centimeters long, so that hook is really hard to see.”

Besides that, Morrison also learned the hard way that certain plays look a heckuva lot different. 

“A guy using his stick underneath his sled to try to shoot a puck in a motion for someone that hasn’t been around sled hockey looks a lot like he basically threw it with his hand,” Morrison said. “I remember I actually waved off a goal that I thought was put in with his hand and everybody else knew he put it in with his stick.”

That three-team sled hockey tournament, featuring the United States, Canada, and Germany, gave Morrison the confidence he needed heading into the 2006 Paralympic Games in Torino.

“I had just worked a bunch of games at a really high level,” Morrison said. “I was seeing the best players, so I felt good. When I actually got to the 2006 Paralympic Games in Torino it was one of those things where I had to step up and get better every game. There was no choice.”

For Morrison, the first game of the 2006 Paralympic Games in Torino was life-changing.

“When I was younger I was hoping to make the NHL (as an official),” Morrison said. “Once I was about 30 years old, I realized that it wasn’t going to happen, so I kind of switched mental gears and said, ‘OK. Let’s go the international route.’ Obviously the brass ring for the international route is the Olympics. That’s what I was pushing for. That’s what I thought I had my best shot at. Then all of a sudden I get this call that I am going to the Paralympics. It took my breath away. I had been working for something like that, and once it happened, all I wanted to do was get ready for it.”

Since then, Morrison has worked three more Paralympic Games (Vancouver, Sochi, and Pyeongchang) on top of handling his current role with the International Paralympic Committee.

In that position, Morrison works with the technical side of the sport, which basically focuses on our rulebooks, as well as the officiating development side of the sport, which essentially is a pathway that finds a way to get the most out of our officials. He also oversees the assigning of certain officials to certain tournaments

“I am looking for officials that have succeeded at some of the highest levels that show a passion for the sport,” Morrison said. “I’d say the passion for the sport is as important, if not more important, than what they have accomplished elsewhere. I don’t want the guy that calls me and is like, ‘Hey. I’m a good linesman. Can I go to the World Championships?’ Sorry. It doesn’t work that way. I want guys that actually love the sport.”

That became a focus based on his experiences with the sport over the better part of the last two decades. He has grown extremely passionate about it, and as the leader of the bunch, he wants every member of his officiating crews to feel the same way. 

“I’ve been in this sport long enough and I know guys that have worked the Calder Cup and worked the Frozen Four that I could introduce them to sport the same way I was introduced and they’d do a good job,” Morrison said. “That said, I want that individual who is so passionate about the sport that they have taken a week out of their summer to come and train with us. I’m looking for someone who is passionate about the sport and I think we’ve done a good job with that so far.”