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Vitamin zZz: How Sleep Impacts Health and Performance

By USA Hockey, 06/16/17, 8:00AM MDT

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Sleep is a hot topic among doctors and sports scientists

With more than 40 percent of Americans getting less than the ideal amount of sleep, it’s easy to understand why sleep is such a hot topic among doctors and sports scientists.  Lack of sleep has been shown to cause health problems such as weight gain, increased stroke risk, and other illnesses, in addition to research showing that sleep quality can have a significant impact on active performance.

Professional athletes such as LeBron James, Roger Federer, and Usain Bolt are on record as saying they need to sleep 10-12 hours a night to perform at their highest level. Two-thirds of athletes report worse than normal sleep the night before competition, while an evaluation of professional hockey players showed the percentage reporting sleep disturbances doubles in season.  Student athletes who sleep less than eight hours a night are two times more likely to suffer an injury within a month.

Sleep deprivation can lead to decreased alertness, reaction time, and memory. Sleep loss can lead to potential decreases in immune system function and a reduction in the release of growth hormone, as well as the hormones leptin and adiponectin – both of which play major roles in fat gain and loss.

Sleep has been shown to directly impact exercise abilities:

  • Well-rested tennis players have a 4.2% increase in hitting accuracy
  • Well-rested swimmers showed a 17% improvement in starting times
  • Well-rested football players dropped 0.1 second off their 40-yard dash time
  • Well-rested basketball players increased free throw and 3-point shooting percentage by 9% each
  • Under-rested athletes lost 20 pounds off their bench press after only 4 days of inadequate sleep
  • Perceived exhaustion increased 18% after only 30 hours of sleep loss
  • Sleep loss led to an 11% increase in time to exhaustion

Fortunately, the foods you eat can play and important role in your ability to sleep.

Protein consumption before bed is linked to improved recovery from exercise and ability to train the next day, while also promoting increases in strength gains and muscle mass. Adding cottage cheese, Greek yogurt, or a small whey protein shake before bed can help your sleep.

Warm Milk has long been believed to help achieve a good night’s sleep; however, many of the early theories have been disproven. Now, however, studies have shown that milk from cow’s milked at night have higher levels of melatonin, which helps regulate sleep, as well as vitamin D, and vitamin D supplementation has been shown to decrease the time it takes to fall asleep.

Tart Cherries have been shown to promote sleep by helping individuals fall asleep faster and spend less time awake throughout the night.

Kiwifruit consumption in individuals with self-reported sleep disorders improved both total time asleep and the amount of time spent in bed actually sleeping.

Nuts and Seeds are high in the mineral magnesium, and deficiencies in magnesium can lead to insomnia and “restless leg” at night. Magnesium helps maintain normal levels of blood pressure and blood sugar and promotes relaxation, which promotes a better sleep environment.

Lights Out – one study has shown that two hours of exposure to smartphones, tablets, and laptop displays decreases melatonin – which regulates sleep cycles – by more than 20 percent. Use of these devices should be limited before bed, or at a minimum, turned on night mode or dimmed. Supplementing with melatonin should be considered, as well as eating foods naturally containing melatonin such as pineapples, bananas, oranges, oats, and tomatoes.

References

  1. Markwald R. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2013.
  2. Res P, Groen B, Pennings B, et al. Protein Ingestion before sleep Improves post-exercise overnight recovery. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2012.
  3. Tuomilehto H, Vuorinen V, Penttilä E, et al. Sleep of professional athletes: Underexploited potential to improve health and performance. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2016.
  4. Milewski M, Skaggs D, Bishop G, et al. Chronic lack of sleep is associated with increased sports injuries in adolescent athletes. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 2014.
  5. Mah C, Mah K, Kezirian E, Dement W. The effects of sleep extension on the athletic performance of collegiate basketball players. Sleep. 2011.
  6. Mah C, Mah K, Dement W. Sleep extension in collegiate athletes. PsycEXTRA Dataset.
  7. Smith R, Efron B, Mah D, Malhotra A. The impact of circadian misalignment on athletic performance in professional football players. Sleep. 2013.
  8. Halson S. Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep. Sports Med Sports Medicine. 2014.
  9. St. Onge M, Mikic A, Pietrolungo C. Effects of diet on sleep quality. Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal. 2016.
  10. Wood B, Rea M, Plitnick B, Figueiro M. Light level and duration of exposure determine the impact of self-luminous tablets on melatonin suppression. Applied Ergonomics. 2013.

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Meet our Olympic officials

By USA Hockey 01/26/2018, 3:15pm MST

Seven U.S. officials selected for 2018 Olympic Winter Games

USA Hockey is proud to introduce the seven – yes, SEVEN – officials representing the United States at the 2018 Olympic Winter Games in Pyeongchang, South Korea, beginning Feb. 11 (women’s hockey) and Feb. 14 (men’s hockey).

This year USA Hockey had more officials selected than any other country.

So, without further ado, meet our 2018 Olympic officials:

 

DINA ALLEN

Hometown: North Tonawanda, New York

Length of officiating career: 11 seasons

 

Where did you get your start? As I take the time to reflect, the journey began when I started playing hockey at the age of 4. Learning the basic skills of the game grew into a greater love for the game, which led to ultimately pursuing college hockey. After I graduated university and returned to my hometown, it was at the rink I grew up skating, Hockey Outlet, where I first wore the stripes, officiating an 8U cross-ice game. All of my years playing and studying the game gave me the foundation to find success in officiating. 

 

When did you find out you were assigned to the Games? What was your reaction in that moment? I found out via a phone call from Matt Leaf on Tuesday, Nov. 28. I was extremely excited and truly grateful for the opportunity. I immediately called my husband to share the moment with him, as he has been very supportive during this journey (he’s also a hockey official who understands the significance). 

 

Did you ever imagine your officiating career taking you to places like this? No, I never imagined officiating could take me to the Olympics. I actually started officiating for extra money in law school. I quickly found, however, that it filled a void I knew I was going to have after college hockey was over. It afforded me the opportunity to stay involved with hockey at a high level.  

 

Favorite Olympic moment? The 1998 Olympic Winter Games will always be one of my favorites because it was the first year women’s hockey was an Olympic sport. 

 

USA Hockey is sending the most officials to the Games this year; what does the officiating program do so right that more and more Americans are being selected for these big-time events? The USA Hockey officiating program provides many opportunities to develop its officials on a national level, including seminars, camps and high-level competition with high-quality evaluators/instructors. The program also has a long history of going above and beyond to promote and develop its female officials. 

Any advice? Focus on the elements you can control, including rule knowledge, skating, fitness and communication. Work hard and dream big! 

 

KATIE GUAY

Hometown: Westfield, Massachusetts

Length of officiating career: 10 seasons

 

Where did you get your start? I played in a women's league following college and started my officiating career in that women's league. 

 

When did you find out you were assigned to the Games? What was your reaction in that moment? On Nov 28. We were told it would be around Dec. 1, so I was anxiously awaiting the email, and was ecstatic when it came a few days earlier than expected. I first received a voicemail from Matt Leaf and couldn't dial his number fast enough to hear the "good news" he had to share. This has been a dream since my first IIHF tournament back in 2011, so I was euphoric. 

 

Did you ever imagine your officiating career taking you to places like this? Officiating has taken me to numerous states and countries, and I certainly never imagined I would have the opportunity to travel around the globe and meet so many incredible people through the game I love. When I learned about the possibilities for officials, I was eager to become IIHF-certified and participate in a tournament overseas. Following my first IIHF World Championship in Caen, France, I was eager for another IIHF opportunity and set my ultimate goal on the Olympics.  

 

How is officiating on the Olympic stage different from other international competitions (or is it?) I can't wait to see! I've been to a handful of IIHF World Championships and am excited to experience the highest level of hockey on the world's biggest stage. 

 

Favorite Olympic moment? Watching the U.S. women win gold in '98. At that time, I was playing hockey on a boys team, so it was amazing to see women playing hockey on TV. 

 

USA Hockey is sending the most officials to the Games this year; what does the officiating program do so right that more and more Americans are being selected for these big-time events? USA Hockey has a solid development program for females and is providing the resources to allow us a variety of opportunities to learn and grow.

 

Any advice? Make the most out of every game and each opportunity.  It can be a long ride, but along the way you’ll meet incredible people, have amazing experiences. There will be some disappointments, but control what you can control, put in the hard work outside of the rink, and have fun.

 

 

JESS LECLERC

Hometown: Augusta, Maine (lives in Saco, Maine)

Officiating career length: 19 seasons

 

Where did you get your start? I started officiating in Augusta, doing youth games with my dad.

 

When did you find out you were assigned to the Games? What was your reaction in that moment? I got a call from Matt Leaf on Nov. 28. Absolute shock. It's hard to put into words the exact feelings of finding out.

 

Did you ever imagine your officiating career taking you to places like this? No. I've always wanted to officiate the highest level I could do. Each year has given me the chance to get closer to the going to the Olympics, but even now it seems surreal.

 

How is officiating on the Olympic stage different from other international competitions (or is it?) I'm not certain it's different except that everyone is familiar with the Olympics and this is the absolute top of the mountain when it comes to women's hockey. When it comes to international competitions, only those people associated with hockey understand what it is. The Olympics on the other hand represent the best in the world to everyone.

 

Favorite Olympic moment? The 1980 Miracle On Ice. I wasn't alive then, but having watched the movies and skated in Lake Placid many times, it sticks out as my favorite. It really epitomizes the emotions, dedication and excitement associated with the Olympics and why we play sports. The winner is never pre-determined and you just never know who will come out on top.

 

USA Hockey is sending the most officials to the Games this year; what does the officiating program do so right that more and more Americans are being selected for these big-time events? The USA Hockey Officiating Program has an incredible development program that gives officials, both men and women, opportunities to learn and develop. Women receive consistent opportunities to skate national and international tournaments and attend camps. As a whole, the officiating program is giving opportunities to a greater number of officials, and therefore, no one gets complacent. Everyone is continuously striving to get better so that they can continue to get opportunities at these big-time events.

 

Any advice? Own Your Future. I would give this advice to any official who is striving to continue moving up the officiating ladder, not just those looking to work the Olympics. In 2016, I was fortunate to attend USA Hockey’s ODP full-time camp in Plymouth, Mich., and this was the motto of the program for the year. It has really resonated with me. There are so many things you can't control in officiating, but at the same time, there are certainly things you can - your work ethic, your attitude, your willingness to learn, your dedication to fitness, just to name a few.

 

TIMOTHY MAYER

Hometown: Okemos, Michigan (lives in Grand Rapids, Mich.)

Length of officiating career: 19 years

 

Where did you get your start? I started officiating in Lansing, Mich., during high school, for money and extra ice time.

 

When did you find out you were assigned to the Games? What was your reaction in that moment? I found out about the Olympics when I received a phone call from Matt Leaf the last week of November. I felt just incredible feeling of accomplishment and so blessed with the opportunity to work the Olympics. It’s a dream come true 

 

Did you ever imagine your officiating career taking you to places like this? I never thought officiating would take me all over the world. I’m very lucky USA Hockey and the IIHF have afforded me amazing experiences and journeys.

 

How is officiating on the Olympic stage going to be different from other international competitions? The Olympics are definitely a larger stage, but it’s still the same job I have to do, and that’s work hard and give it my best.

 

Favorite Olympic moment? Watching the USA vs. Canada men’s gold-medal hockey games in 2002 and 2010. They were great, exciting, action-packed games that lived up to the billing.

 

Any advice? Stay involved with USA Hockey and take advantage of every opportunity you can along the way.

 

FRASER MCINTYRE

Hometown: Buffalo, New York

Length of officiating career: I started officiating when I was 12 years old.

 

Where did you get your start? I was cut from a local travel hockey team and was pretty disappointed at the time. My parents asked if I wanted to ref hockey to make some extra money. I was hooked and loved being on the ice.

 

When did you find out you were assigned to the Games? What was your reaction? I had taken a personal day off from work to catch up on some errands and spend time with my family. I was on my way back from a doctor’s appointment when I received a call form Matt Leaf advising that I was selected to work and that the IIHF would be sending out their press release the next day. My initial reaction was disbelief; I couldn’t believe I was actually selected. It didn’t sink in until I saw my name on the list in the press release on who was assigned.

 

Did you ever imagine your officiating career taking you to places like this? In all honesty, no. When I started reffing, it was a side job to make some extra money. Then it turned into wanting to officiate the best games around Buffalo. It then went to a career taking me around the U.S. working junior hockey and minor pro. While I was working junior hockey, I never thought it would be a possibility to officiate in other countries and make it to this point.

 

How is officiating on the Olympic stage different from other international competitions (or is it?) The Olympic stage is different and not different, at the same time. It’s the same in the fact that your routine, preparing to skate a game and being mentally and physically prepared, cannot change. You have to be ready to go. It differs because the Olympics are the biggest stage for ice hockey and the entire world is watching. The Olympics only come around every four years and the players are going to give it all they have.

 

Favorite Olympic moment? My favorite moment would be most recently watching the USA vs. Canada gold-medal men’s game in the 2010 Olympics in Vancouver.

 

USA hockey is sending the most to the Games this year; what does the officiating program do so right that more and more Americans are being selected for these big-time events?  It all starts at the bottom. USA Hockey has a great system for its officials beginning at the grassroots level. They have developed a way that officials at any level are able to learn. Yearly modules and classroom seminars, district seminars, Futures Camp, High Performance Camp and Program of Merit are avenues officials can take to further their education and learning. Through this, USA Hockey has established a constant flow of officials who have taken advantage of these opportunities which has equipped them for potential assignments such as this.

 

Any advice? The road to advance your career can be long, challenging, and difficult, but keep your head down and keep controlling what you can control. As an official, we can control our appearance, physical fitness, rule knowledge and attitude. These things will assist in helping your career at any level.

 

JUDSON RITTER

Hometown: Belvidere, New Jersey

Length of officiating career: 17 years

 

Where did you get your start? USA Hockey Level 1 seminar in Bethlehem, Pa., back in 2000. I started my international career sometime around 2011, when I got my international license. 

 

When did you find out you were assigned to the Games? What was your reaction in that moment? I was at work when Matt Leaf called. When I saw it was him calling, I was hoping it wasn't to give me bad news. When he started with “Congratulations,” there was a moment of pure joy, followed by ‘Wow, I can't believe it's actually happening.’

 

Did you ever imagine your officiating career taking you to places like this? Officiating has taken me beyond anywhere I ever could have imagined. It truly is incredible to have the opportunity to see the world thanks to hockey.

 

How is officiating on the Olympic stage different from other international competitions? Pretty sure the magnifier is going to be a bit larger for this one. It always amazes me to see the passion people have for their home countries. 

 

Favorite Olympic moment? My most memorable Olympic moment was from 1996 when Muhammad Ali lit the Olympic torch in Atlanta. I was 13 at the time and had been part of the Olympic torch relay when it came through my home state of New Jersey. Hockey-related memory would be watching overtime of the 2010 men's ice hockey gold-medal game.

 

USA Hockey is sending the most officials to the Games this year; what does the officiating program do so right that more and more Americans are being selected for these big-time events? USA Hockey does a fantastic job of giving its officials a solid foundation in which to grow their officiating careers. What you are seeing is not overnight success but many, many years of dedication to learning the craft of officiating and earning the stripes.

 

Any advice? Put in the hard work and time it takes to climb the officiating ladder. Enjoy every moment and opportunity officiating provides you because, even without the Olympics, hockey has taken me to places I never could have imagined.

 

 

MELISSA SZKOLA

Hometown: Port Huron, Michigan (lives in St. Clair Shores, Mich.)

Length of officiating career: 13 years

 

Where did you get your start? My husband (boyfriend at the time) had his USA Hockey seminar to go to and invited me along. He thought since I knew how to skate it might be something fun to do together.

 

When did you find out you were assigned to the Games? What was your reaction in that moment? I found out Nov. 28. I was at work, alone with my puppy, and started crying. I was so relieved and excited.

 

Did you ever imagine your officiating career taking you to places like this? The second game I ever officiated was with a great official and friend of mine, Krissy Langley. She told me what was possible and has been an inspiration and role model to me ever since.

 

Favorite Olympic moment? Watching Michelle Kwan at the 1998 Nagano Olympics.

 

USA Hockey is sending the most officials to the Games this year; what does the officiating program do so right that more and more Americans are being selected for these big-time events? USA Hockey is very supportive of its officials. They have developed wonderful programs to help us thrive. There is no limit to what we can achieve with the support we are given. As long as you take advantage of the opportunities and work hard, the sky's the limit.

 

Any advice? Use the resources around you. Never be afraid to ask for help and always work hard. Own your future, set goals and work toward them everyday.

Michigan Clinics Emphasize the Skills of Proper Body-Checking

By Stephen Kerr 01/31/2018, 9:00am MST

Provenzano encourages coaches to teach safe and effective contact

Host Sites Set for 2018 USA Hockey National Championships

By USA Hockey 01/10/2017, 10:30am MST

Tournaments scheduled for March and April in cities nationwide